Gene Sharp is Senior Scholar at the Albert Einstein
Institution in Boston, Massachusetts. From 1965 he held research
appointments in Harvard University’s Center for International
Affairs for nearly thirty years. He is Professor Emeritus of Political
Science at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth.
Dr. Sharp, who has been called "the Clausewitz
of nonviolent warfare," founded the Albert Einstein Institution
in 1983 to promote research, policy studies, and education on the
strategic uses of nonviolent struggle in face of dictatorship, war,
genocide, and oppression.
He holds the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in
political theory from Oxford University (1968), a Master of Arts in
Sociology (1951), and a Bachelor of Arts in Social Sciences (1949)
from Ohio State University. Manhattan College awarded him an honorary
degree of Doctor of Laws (1983). Rivier College awarded him an
honorary Doctor of Humanitarian Service (1996).
He lived for ten years in England and Norway. He
did advanced studies at Oxford University, and in Norway he held
positions at the University of Oslo and the Institute for Social
Dr. Sharp is the author of various books on
nonviolent struggle, power, political problems, dictatorships, and
defense policy. His writings have been published in English in several
countries and in twenty-seven other languages. These include
Norwegian, German, French, Italian, Arabic, Hebrew, Tamil, Burmese,
Karen, Thai, Spanish, Chinese, Korean, and Japanese.
His The Politics of Nonviolent Action (1973)
(Introduction by Thomas C. Schelling) was immediately hailed as a
classic and the definitive study of nonviolent struggle.
His Making Europe Unconquerable (1985)
focused on the relevance of civilian-based defense for Western Europe.
It carried a Foreword by George F. Kennan.
His Civilian-Based Defense: A Post-Military
Weapons System (1990) examined how organized nonviolent
noncooperation and defiance can potentially deter and defeat internal
takeovers and invasions. This book was used in 1991 and 1992 by the
new independent governments of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania in
planning their defense against Soviet efforts to regain control.
A collection of political analyses, Social Power
and Political Freedom (1980), included an Introduction by Senator
Mark O. Hatfield.
Gandhi as a Political Strategist, with Essays on
Ethics and Politics (1979) carried an Introduction by Coretta
Scott King, and the Indian edition (1999) contained additionally a
Foreword by Frederico Mayor, then Director-General of UNESCO.
His first book, Gandhi Wields the Weapon of
Moral Power (1960) included a Foreword by Albert Einstein.
Additionally, he is co-editor of Resistance,
Politics, and the American Struggle for Independence, 1765-1775
(1986) and of Nonviolent Action: A Research Guide (1997), as
well as a contributor to several encyclopedias.
A new book, The Power and Practice of Nonviolent
Struggle, is in preparation in English. The earlier edition in
Tibetan is being published with a Foreword by the Dalai Lama.
Dr. Sharp’s recent shorter writings include From
Dictatorship to Democracy (English, Burmese, Spanish, Karen, and
Indonesian). The Burmese editions were repeatedly denounced by the
Burmese military dictators, and the Indonesian edition carried a
Foreword by Abdurrahman Wahid, now President of Indonesia. The Spanish
translation circulates in Cuba.
Dr. Sharp has in recent years made major efforts to
prepare simplified presentations on the nature of nonviolent struggle
and its applications against dictatorships. He has conducted workshops
and consulted on strategic nonviolent struggle in several crisis
He maintains that the major unsolved political
problems of our time — dictatorship, genocide, war, social
oppression, and popular powerlessness — require us to rethink
politics in order to develop fresh strategies and programs for their
resolution. He is convinced that pragmatic, strategically planned,
nonviolent struggle can be made highly effective for application in
conflicts to lift oppression and as a substitute for violence.
ALBERT EINSTEIN INSTITUTION 427 Newbury Street, Boston, MA 02115-1801.
Tel.: (617) 247-4882. Fax: (617) 247-4035. Web: www.aeinstein.org
Albert Einstein Institution
Books in English
1999 hardback Gandhi as a Political Strategist, with Essays
on Ethics and Politics. Indian edition with a new Introduction by
Dr. Federico Mayor. Original Introduction by Coretta Scott King. pp.
357. New Delhi: Gandhi Media Centre. (See 1979 edition below.)
1997 hardback Nonviolent Action: A Research Guide. Second
editor with Ronald McCarthy. pp. 720. New York: Garland Publishers.
hardback Civilian-Based Defense: A Post-Military Weapons System.
With the assistance of Bruce Jenkins. 165 pp. Princeton, NJ: Princeton
hardback Resistance, Politics, and the American Struggle for
Independence, 1765-1775. Co-editor with Walter Conser, Jr., Ronald
M. McCarthy, and David J. Toscano. 592 pp. Boulder: Lynne Rienner
paperback Making Europe Unconquerable: The Potential of
Civilian-based Deterrence and Defense. 252 pp. London: Taylor
& Francis. Second Edition (190pp.) with a Foreword by George F.
Kennan. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, 1986.
paperback National Security Through Civilian-based Defense. 93
pp. Omaha: Association for Transarmament Studies.
hardback and paperback Social Power and Political Freedom. 456
pp. Introduction by Senator Mark O. Hatfield. Boston: Porter Sargent.
hardback and paperback Gandhi as a Political Strategist, with
Essays on Ethics and Politics. 356 pp. Introduction by Coretta
Scott King. Boston: Porter Sargent.
hardback and paperback The Politics of Nonviolent Action. 902
pp. Introduction by Thomas C. Schelling. Prepared under the auspices
of Harvard University's Center for International Affairs. Boston:
Porter Sargent. 1974 paperback edition in 3 vols.: I, Power and
Struggle. 114 pp.; II, The Methods of Nonviolent Action.
348 pp.; III, Dynamics of Nonviolent Action. 466 pp. Boston:
hardback and paperback Exploring Nonviolent Alternatives. 161
pp. Introduction by David Riesman. Boston: Porter Sargent.
hardback Civilian Defense: An Introduction. Co-editor with Adam
Roberts and T.K. Mahadevan. 265 pp. Introductory statement by
President Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan. Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan,
and New Delhi: Gandhi Peace Foundation.
hardback and paperback Gandhi Wields the Weapon of Moral Power:
Three Case Histories. 316 pp. Foreword by Albert Einstein.
Introduction by Bharatan Kumarappa. Ahmedabad: Navajivan Publishing
Books/booklets in production
2000 The Power and Practice of Nonviolent Struggle. (In
(Burma) Transliteration forthcoming. (translation of From
Dictatorship to Democracy: A conceptual framework for liberation)
Jing-paw (Burma) Transliteration forthcoming. (translation of From
Dictatorship to Democracy: A conceptual framework for liberation)
(Burma) Gumshem Magam Lai Kaw Nna Dimokresi Lai De (translation
of From Dictatorship to Democracy: A conceptual framework for
liberation) (in press).
Books in translation
Tibetan TseWa Spangs Pai 'Thab Rtsod Kyi Nus Shugs Dang Nyamslen.
(translation of The Power and Practice of Nonviolent Political
Struggle) New Delhi, India: Tibetan Parliamentary and Policy
Research Centre. Publisher's Note by the Venerable Samdhong Rinpoche.
Foreword by The Dalai Lama.
Tamil No transliteration available. (Translation of The Politics of
Nonviolent Action) 1035pp. Madurai: Vanguard Press.
Korean No transliteration available. (Translation of Civilian-Based
Defense: A Post-Military Weapons System) 255pp. Seoul: Korea
La Guerre Civilisée: Defense par Actions Civilies. 192pp.
(Translation of Civilian-Based Defense: A Post-Military Weapons
System) Grenoble: Presses Universitaires de Grenoble.
Latvian Sabiedrisk Aizsardziba. 200pp. (Translation of Civilian-Based
Defense: A Post-Military Weapons System) Riga: Junda Publishers.
(Mandarin) No transliteration available. 242pp. (Translation of Civilian-Based
Defense: A Post-Military Weapons System) Taipei: Avant Guard
Estonian Elanikele Toetur Kaitse. 107pp. (Translation of Civilian-Based
Defense: A Post-Military Weapons System) Tallinn: Infomare.
paperback Hagana Leumit Ezrakhit: Tzurat HaLekhima HaAtidit 165
pp. (Translation of Civilian-Based Defense: A Post-Military Weapons
System) Zikhron Ya'Akov: Israeli Institute for Military Studies.
paperback Pilietine Gynyba: Nekarine Ginklu Sistema. 161 pp.
(Translation of Civilian-based Defense: A Post-Military Weapons
System.) Vilnius: Mintis Publishers.
paperback Verso un'Europa Inconquistabile. (Translation of Making
Europe Unconquerable.) 190 pp. Introduction by Gianfranco Pasquino.
Translated by Silvia Cortesi and Matteo Luccio. Turin: Edizioni Gruppo
paperback Naar een onveroverbaar Europa: De kracht van civiele
afschrikking en sociale verdediging. (Translation of Making
Europe Unconquerable.) 216 pp. Translated by Peter Kruijt, Wim
Robben and Mark Hierman. Antwerp: International Vredesinformatiedienst.
paperback Amnart Lae Yoothavitee Rai Kwarm Roon-raeng [Power
and nonviolent strategy]. (Based on the manuscript "Power,
Struggle and Defense.") 402 pp. Introduction by Sulak Sivaraksa.
Translated by Chaiwat Satha-Anand and Komson Hoota-paet. Bangkok:
Krong Karn Nang Sue Sasna Sanivitee, for the Coordinating Group
Religion in Society, and the Komong Keemthong Foundation.
hardback Politica dell'azione nonviolenta. (Translation of The
Politics of Nonviolent Action). 3 vols.: I, Potere e lotta
[Power and struggle]. 164 pp. Translated by Enrico Benucci, Manuel
Vignali and Alberto Zangheri. Turin: Edizione Gruppo Abele, 1985; II, Le
tecniche [The methods]. 338 pp. Translated by Alberto Zangheri.
Turin: Edizione Gruppo Abele, 1986; III, La Dinamica [The
Dynamics]. pp. 315. Translated by Alberto Zangheri. Turin: Edizione
Gruppo Abele, 1997.
paperback Almuqawama Bila Ounf [Nonviolent resistance]. (Based
on the manuscript "Power, Struggle and Defense.") 377 pp.
Introductions by Daniel Amit and Jonathan Kuttab. East Jerusalem:
Palestinian Center for the Study of Nonviolence. Reprinted in 1989 and
Hebrew paperback Hitnagdut Lo Alima [Nonviolent resistance].
(Based on the manuscript "Power, Struggle and Defense.") 256
pp. Introductions by Daniel Amit and Jonathan Kuttab. Jerusalem:
paperback Poder, luta, e defesa: Teoria e prática açăo năo-violenta
[Power, struggle, and defense: Theory and practice of nonviolent
action]. (Based on the manuscript "Power, Struggle and
Defense.") 270 pp. Introduction by Paulo Evaristo Cardinal Arns.
Translated by Getúillo Bertelli. Săo Paulo: Ediçőes Paulinas. (Out
paperback Macht en strijd: Theorie en praktijk van geweldloze actie
[Power and struggle: Theory and practice of nonviolent action].
(Excerpts from The Politics of Nonviolent Action.) 235 pp.
Introduction by Professor Peter Kooijmans. Translated by Jenny de
Graaf. Utrecht and Antwerp: Het Spectrum.
Japanese hardback and paperback Buki naki minshu no teiko: Sono
senryakuron-teki apuroch [Mass resistance without weapons: Its
military-strategic approach]. (Translation of Exploring Nonviolent
Alternatives.) 262 pp. Translated by Komatsu Shigeo. Tokyo: Renga
Booklets/pamphlets (in English and translations)
(Burma) Transliteration forthcoming. (translation of From
Dictatorship to Democracy: A conceptual framework for liberation).
1999 Spanish (Cuba) "La Relavancia de Gandhi en el Mundo Moderno."
(Translation of "The Relevance of Gandhi in the Modern
World.") pp. 33. Miami: Cuban Revolutionary Democratic
Directorate (Directorio Revolucionario Democratico Cubano) and
Centro de Estudios para una Opción Nacional (CEON).
(Cuba) "El Rol Del Poder En La Lucha Noviolenta."
(Translation of "The Role of Power in Nonviolent Struggle."
19 pp. Monograph Series No. 3, Cambridge, MA: The Albert Einstein
Institution.) 16 pp. Miami: Cuban Revolutionary Democratic Directorate
(Directorio Revolucionario Democratico Cubano).
(Cuba) De La Dictadura A La Democracia (Translation of From
Dictatorship to Democracy: A conceptual framework for liberation)
76 pp. Miami: Brothers to the Rescue (Hermanos Al Rescate).
1997 & 1998
(Cuba) "La Lucha Politica Noviolenta: Su Poder y su Prática."
[Translation]. Condensation of The Politics of Nonviolent Action Revised
and expanded edition and new translation. 85 pp. Miami: Brothers to
the Rescue (Hermanos Al Rescate).
Menuju Demokrasi Tanpa Kekerasan (Toward Democracy Without
Violence, the title of the Indonesian edition of From
Dictatorship to Democracy) Introductions by Abdurrahman Wahid and
Prof. Dr. Franz Magnis Suseno, SJ. 108 pp. Jakarta: Pustaka Sinar
Macedonian No transliteration available 85 pp. (Translation of
"Self-Reliant Defense Without Bankruptcy or War.") Skopje:
Union Trade (with financial support of the Open Society Institute,
"Defense against Coups d'État", in Human Rights and
Coups D'État (with essays "Coups d'État in 1992-1993",
by Bruce Jenkins and "Coups d'État as Threats to Human
Rights", by Charles Norchi) Occasional Paper #2, New York:
International League for Human Rights
Burmese No transliteration available. 88pp. (Translation of From
Dictatorship to Democracy: A conceptual framework for liberation)
Bangkok: Khit Pyaing (New Era Journal). (Reprinted 1996, 1997)
paperback From Dictatorship to Democracy: A Conceptual Framework
for Liberation, 79 pp. Bangkok: The Committee for the Restoration
of Democracy in Burma.
1993 "Defense Without War: The Status of Civilian-Based Defense
in the World Today" 14 pp. Occasional Paper No. 6. Honolulu,
Matsunaga Institute for Peace, University of Hawai'i.
Estonian "Soltumatu Kaitsepoliitika: ilma pankroti ja sőjata"
108 pp. (Translation of "Self-reliant Defense Without Bankruptcy
or War") Tallinn: Informare.
Thai "No transliteration available." [Against the Coup:
Fundamentals of an Effective Defense,] 48 pp. Bangkok, Komong
1992 "Self-Reliant Defense Without Bankruptcy or War." With
the assistance of Bruce Jenkins. 72 pp. Cambridge, MA: The Albert
Einstein Institution. Expanded version of original paper under same
title printed by Center for International Studies, University of
Missouri-St. Louis, Occasional Paper No. 9203, February 1992.
Latvian "Patstaviga Aizsardziba - Alternativa Saimnieciskaiam
Postam Un Karam." (Translation of "Self-Reliant Defense
Without Bankruptcy or War.) Riga: Ministry of Defense.
Lithuanian "Savarankiska Gynyba Be Bankroto ir Karo." 80 pp.
(Translation of "Self-reliant Defense Without Bankruptcy or War.)
Vilnius: Mintis Publishers.
French "L'Abolition de la Guerre un But Réaliste." 35 pp.
Translation of "Making the Abolition of War a Realistic Goal.)
Cahiers de la non-violence no. 4, Montreal: Le Centre de Ressources
sur la non-violence.
1990 "The Role of Power in Nonviolent Struggle." 19pp.
Monograph Series No. 3, Cambridge, MA: The Albert Einstein
Arabic "Al-Intifada wa al-Nidal Bila 'Anf." (Translation of
"The Intifada and Nonviolent Struggle.") 19 pp. Jerusalem:
Palestinian Center for the Study of Nonviolence. Reprinted in 1991.
Burmese "Arnar Nint Naing-gun-ye Eí Gaw-da" (Translation of
"The Role of Power in Nonviolent Struggle.") 23 pp. Fairfax,
VA: Foundation for Democracy in Burma. Reprinted in 1992 and in 1993.
Dutch "Progressieve politiek en geweldloze politieke techniek."
(Translation of "The Problem of Political Technique in Radical
Politics," in Social Power and Political Freedom.) 22 pp.
Zwolle: Stichting Voorlichting Aktieve Geweldloosheid.
1988 Spanish "La Lucha Politica: Criterios y Métodos."
Condensation of The Politics of Nonviolent Action ) 114pp.
Santiago: Ediciones ChileAmérica CESOC. (2nd Edition, April, 1988).
Dutch "Een einde maken aan onderdrukking: Strategiese problemen
van de verzetsbetweging in Zuid-Afrika." (Translation of
"What is Required to Uproot Oppression? Strategic Problems of the
South African Resistance," in Social Power and Political
Freedom.) 31 pp. Zwolle: Stichting Voorlichting Aktieve
Arabic "Kitah Al-La'Anf: Waseeleh Taaley Lilamel Al-Syassi."
(Translation of "Nonviolent Struggle: An Efficient Technique of
Political Action. An Interview with Gene Sharp" by Afif Safieh.)
31 pp. Jerusalem: Palestinian Center for the Study of Nonviolence.
1988 "Nonviolent Struggle: An Efficient Technique of Political
Action -- An Interview with Gene Sharp." 47 pp. Jerusalem:
Palestinian Center for the Study of Nonviolence.
Spanish "La Lucha Politica Noviolenta: Criterios y Técnicas."
Condensation of The Politics of Nonviolent Action by Jaime
Gonzalez Bernal. 78 pp. Mexico: private printings.
Dutch "Afschaffing van oorlog een realisties doel."
(Translation of "Making the Abolition of War a Realistic
Goal.") 55 pp. Zwolle: Stichting Aktieve Geweldloosheid.
Polish "Walka Bez Uzycia Przemocy." (Excerpts from Chapter 1
of The Politics of Nonviolent Action.) 21 pp. Gdansk:
(clandestine Solidarity publisher). Reprinted in 1986, Warsaw: Ad Sum
(clandestine publisher). Also printed in the journal "ANEKS",
(London), Issue 34, Autumn 1984, pp. 53-71.
Dutch "Sociale verdediging: Afschrikking en verdediging door
burgers." [Civilian-based defense: deterrence and defense by
citizens.] 55 pp. Introduction by Professor J.S. van Hessen.
Monographie no. 1, Winter 81/82. 's-Gravenhage: Stichting Maatschappij
1981 "Making the Abolition of War a Realistic Goal." 16 pp.
New York: Institute for World Order, 1981. Reissued in 1983 and in
1985 by the World Policy Institute. Reprinted by the Association for
Transarmanent (Aotearoa), Dunedin, New Zealand, 1986. Reprinted by The
Albert Einstein Institution, Cambridge, MA, in 1992.
Norwegian "Tyranniet Kunne Ikkje Knusa Dei." (Translation of
"Tyranny Could Not Quell Them.") 42 pp. FMKs fredspolitiske
skriftserie no. 3. Oslo: Folkereisning mot krig.
1965 "The Political Equivalent of War -- Civilian Defence." International
Conciliation. 67 pp. Whole issue, no. 555, November 1965. New
York: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
1964 "Civilian Defence." Co-editor with Adam Roberts, Jerome
Frank, and Arne Nćss. 70 pp. Forward by the Honorable Alastair Buchan.
London: Peace News.
1961 "Gandhi Faces the Storm." 71 pp. Ahmedabad: Navajivan
1958 "Tyranny Could Not Quell Them." London: Peace News.
Chapters (in English and translations)
1999 "What Are the Options for Action for Believers in
Principled Nonviolence?" in Jampa Samten and Losang Norbu Shastri,
eds., Professor Samdhong Rinpoche Felicitation Volume. Varanasi,
India: Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies.
1998 "Nonviolent Action in Acute Interethnic Conflicts" in
the Abraham Fund's Handbook of Interethnic Coexistence. New
York: The Abraham Fund & Continuum Publishing Group, pp. 369-381.
1995 "The Power Potential of Nonviolent Struggle" with Bruce
Jenkins in Nonviolence and Tolerance in Changing Eastern and
Central Europe. Vilnius, LOGOS. [Reprinted in Journal of Peace
and Gandhian Studies (July-December, 1996), pp. 19-26, vol. I, no.
4 & vol. 2, no. 1, New Delhi: Gandhi Media Centre.]
Russian No transliteration available of chapter, book title, nor
publisher name (transliterations forthcoming) [The role of power in
nonviolent struggle]. Moscow, 1993
Russian "Istoricheskaya Znachimost Narastaniya Nyenasilstvyennoi
Barbi u Kontsye XX Vyeka" [The historical significance of the
growth of nonviolent struggle in the late 20th century], in XX Vyek:
Osnovnieh Problemi i Tendentsii Mezhdunarodnikh Otnoshenii [Twentieth
century: fundamental problems and tendencies of international
relations], papers from an international conference 21-23 November
1989, Moscow, sponsored by the Institute of History, Russian Academy
1992 "Nonviolent Struggle: An Effective Alternative," in
Kenneth Kraft, ed., Inner Peace, World Peace: Essays on Buddhism
and Nonviolence. Albany: State University of New York Press, pp.
1992 "Nonviolent Struggle Today," in Graeme MacQueen, ed., Unarmed
Forces--Nonviolent Action in Central America and the Middle East.
Toronto: Science for Peace/Samuel Stevens (Canadian Papers in Peace
Studies, No. 1), pp. 1-19.
1991 "Transitions to Civilian-based Defense," in Brian
Martin, et al, Nonviolent Struggle and Social Defence.
London: War Resisters' International and the Myrtle Solomon Memorial
Fund Subcommittee, pp. 15-20. Reprinted in Church & Society
(March/April 1991), pp. 17-23 and in Civilian-Based Defense: News
and Opinion, vol.7, no. 1, May/July 1990, pp. 6-9.
Hebrew "Israel mul Haintifada: Chalufott Mediniyott
Vehashlachoteihen" [Israel vs. intifada: policy options and their
consequences], in Reuven Gal, ed., I Hashvieet: Hashpaott
Haintifada al Hachevra BeIsrael [The seventh war: The effects of
the intifada on the Israeli society.] Tel-Aviv: Hakibbutz Hameuchad
Publishing House, pp. 38-43.
Spanish "En torno a la definición de seguridad nacional"
[Toward a Definition of National Security], in Sergio Aguayo Quezada
and Bruce Michael Bagely, eds., En busca de la seguridad perdida:
aproximaciones a la seguridad nacional mexicana. [In search of the
lost security: assessments of Mexican national security.] Mexico City:
Siglo Vientiuno Editores, pp. 91-96.
1990 "The Role of Power in Nonviolent Political Struggle,"
(Appendix A) in Ralph Crow, Philip Grant and Saad E. Ibrahim, eds., Arab
Nonviolent Political Struggle in the Middle East. Boulder: Lynne
Reinner Publishers, pp. 91-106.
Italian "Difendersi senza armi: Le richere del programma di
Harvard sulle sanzioni nonviolente," in Alberto L'Abate, ed., Richerche
per la pace: educazione e alternative all difesa armata. Bologna:
Nuova Universale Cappelli, pp. 125-143.
Norwegian "En Sivil Komponent i Totalforsvarspolitikken?" [A
civil component in a total defense policy?] in Kompletterende
Forsvarsformer: En Konferanserapport [Complementary forms of
defense: a conference report.] Oslo: Den Norske Atlanterhavskomité,
1989. pp. 13-25.
Arabic "Dowr Al-Quwwa Fi Al-Kifah Al-La Onf," [The role of
power in nonviolent struggle] in Saad Eddin Ibrahim, ed., Al-Muqawama
Al Hadanieh Fi Al-Nidal Al-Siyyas. [Civilian resistance in
political struggle.] Amman: Arab Thought Forum, pp. 9-26.
1987 "Civilian-based Defense: A New Deterrence and Defense
Policy," in Yoshikazu Sakamoto, ed., Strategic Doctrines and
Their Alternatives. New York, London, etc.: Gordon and Breach
Science Publishers, pp. 227-262.
1987 "Making the Abolition of War a Realistic Goal," in
Wesley Cragg, ed., Contemporary Moral Issues, 2d edition.
Toronto etc.: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd, pp. 539-549.
French "Deux formes de dissuasion par défense ŕ base civile,"
[Two forms of dissuasion by civilian-based defense] in Les stratégies
civiles de défense. St. Etienne: Alternatives Non Violentes
(special issue), pp. 47-66. (Paper presented at Strasbourg conference,
November 27-29, 1985)
1986 Excerpts from The Politics of Nonviolent Action, in Duane
Friesen, ed., Christian Peacemaking and International Conflict.
Scottdale, PA: Herald Press.
1985 "Civilian-based Defense Policy," in Melvin Small and J.
David Singer, eds., International War: An Anthology. Homewood,
IL: Dorsey Press, pp. 291-304. (Excerpt from "The Political
Equivalent of War -- Civilian Defense.")
1984 "Conflict Without Violence," in Fallon Evans, ed., Human
Values in the Nuclear Age. Los Angeles: Immaculate Heart College,
1983 "Investigating New Options in Conflict and Defense," in
Douglas Sloan, ed., Education for Peace and Disarmament: Toward a
Living World. New York and London: Teachers College Press, pp.
50-64. (Reprinted from the journal Teachers College Record.)
1983 "The Need for a Substitute for War," with "81
Cases of Non-violent Action," and "Definition of a Few Key
Terms," in Dimitrios Roussopoulos, ed., Our Generation Against
Nuclear War. Montreal: Black Rose Books, pp. 279-296.
1982 "Civilian-based Defense," in UNESCO Yearbook on
Peace and Conflict Studies. Westport: Greenwood Press, pp. 75-78.
1982 "Making the Abolition of War a Realistic Goal," in
Carolyn Stephenson, ed., Alternative Methods for International
Security. Washington, D.C.: University Press of America, pp.
Dutch "Sociale verdediging: Optie voor West Europa,"
[Civilian-based defense: option for Western Europe, reprinted from Jason-magazine]
and "Het politieke equivalent van oorlog: Sociale verdediging,"
(From "The Political Equivalent of War --Civilian Defense")
in Hylke Tromp, ed., Sociale Verdediging. Groningen: Xeno, and
Antwerp: Pax Christi, pp. 27-52; 87-110.
1979 "The Significance of Domestic Nonviolent Action as a
Substitute for International War," in Severyn T. Bruyn and Paula
M. Rayman, eds., Nonviolent Action and Social Change. New York:
Irvington, pp. 233-253.
1977 "Methods of Inducing Change: Social Intervention," in
Fred M. Cox, John L. Erlich, Jack Rothman, and John E. Tropman, eds., Tactics
and Techniques of Community Practice. Itasca: F.E. Peacock
Publishers, pp. 186-193. Reprinted in 1982.
Swedish "Metoder för ickevĺldsagerande," in Adam Roberts, Civlimotstĺndets
teknik. Stockholm: Centralförbundet Folk och Försvar, pp. 35-39.
(Excerpted list of methods from The Politics of Nonviolent Action.)
1975 "Civil Disobedience in a Democracy," in J.S. Mathur and
P.C. Sharma, eds., Facets of Gandhian Thought. Ahmedabad:
Navajivan Publishing House, pp. 38-56.
1974 "An Examination of the Significance of Domestic Nonviolent
Action for Development of a Substitute for International War," in
Joseph Ben-Dak, ed., The Future of Collective Violence: Societal
and International Perspectives. Lund, Sweden: Studentlitteratur,
pp. 165-181. (Paper presented to the American Association for the
Advancement of Science, December 1972.)
Danish "Ikkevoldskampens teknik," (From "The Technique
of Non-violent Action") and "Nationalt forsvar uden vĺben,"
(From National Defense Without Armaments") in Jens Throft, ed., Ikkevold:
Strategi i klassekampen. Copenhagen: Aldrig Mere Krig, pp. 18-35
1973 "National Defense Without Armaments," in Charles R.
Beitz and Theodore Herman, eds., Peace and War. San Francisco:
W.H. Freeman & Co, pp. 349-367. Reprint.
1971 "Mechanisms of Change in Nonviolent Action," in Harvey
A. Hornstein, Barbara Benedict, Warner Burke, Marian Hornstein, and
Roy Lewicki, eds., Social Intervention: A Behavoral Science
Analysis. New York: Free Press, pp. 546-557.
1971 "The Technique of Nonviolent Action," in Joan V.
Bondurant, ed., Conflict: Violence and Nonviolence. Chicago and
New York: Aldine-Atherton Press, pp. 151-171. Reprint.
1970 "National Defense Without Armaments," in War/Peace
Report, vol. 10, no. 4, (April), pp.3-10.
Swedish "Icke-vĺldets teknik," in Adam Roberts, ed., Civilmotstĺndets
Strategi: Historiska exempel och aktuella tillämpningar.
Stockholm: Bokforlaget Aldus/Bonniers, pp. 31-57. (Translation of
"The Technique of Nonviolent Action.")
Finnish "Vakivallattoman toiminnan yhteiskunta," [The social
essence of nonviolent action] and "Eräiden avainsanojen määritelmät,"
[Definition of a few key terms] in Pentti Laine, ed., Siviilivastarinta
[Civilian resistance]. Helsinki: Kustannusosakeyhtio Tammi, pp. 24-44;
Norwegian "Ikkevoldelig motstandsteknikk" in Adam Roberts,
ed., Hele folket i forsvar [The whole people in defense]. Oslo:
Pax Forlag, pp. 17-28. (Translation of "The Technique of
1969 "Research Areas on the Nature, Problems and Potentialities
of Civilian Defense," in S.C. Biswas, ed., Gandhi: Theory and
Practice, Social Impact and Contemporary Relevance: Proceedings of a
Conference. Simla: Indian Institute of Advanced Studies, pp.
1969 "The Technique of Nonviolent Action," in Adam Roberts,
ed., Civilian Resistance as a National Defense. Harmondsworth,
England, and Baltimore: Penguin Books, pp. 107-127. Reprinted from the
1967 English edition The Strategy of Civilian Defence: Nonviolent
Resistance Against Aggression. London: Faber & Faber, pp.
87-105; and the 1968 U.S. edition Civilian Resistance as a National
Defense: Nonviolent Action Against Aggression. Harrisburg, PA:
Stackpole Books, pp. 87-105.
1968 "Types of Principled Nonviolence," in A. Paul Hare and
Herbert H. Blumberg, eds., Nonviolent Direct Action: American
Cases: Social Psychological Analyses. Washington, D.C.: Corpus
Books, pp. 273-313.
1968 "Control of Political Power and Conduct of Open
Struggle," in Mark E. Smith, III, and Claude J. Johns, Jr., eds.,
American Defense Policy. 2d edition, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins
Press, pp. 526-537. (Excerpt from "The Political Equivalent of
War -- Civilian Defense.")
German "Das politische Äquivalent des Krieges -- die gewaltlose
Aktion," in Ekkehart Krippendorf, ed., Friedensforschung.
Neue Wissenschaftliche Bibliothek, vol. 29, Soziologie, Cologne and
Berlin: Kiepenhauer & Witsch, pp. 477-513. (Translation of
"The Political Equivalent of War -- Civilian Defense.")
1967 "India's Dilemma: The Conflicting Demands of Peace and
Defence," "Gandhi's Defense Policy," "Resisting
Totalitarianism Without War," "Deterrence and Liberation by
Civilian Defence," and three appendices, in T. K. Mahadevan, Adam
Roberts, Gene Sharp, Civilian Defence: An Introduction. Bombay:
Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, and New Dehli: Gandhi Peace Foundation, pp.
3-14; 15-52; 53-61; 117-134.
1967 "A Study of the Meanings of Nonviolence," and
"Gandhi's Political Significance Today," in G. Ramachandran
and T.K. Mahadevan, Gandhi: His Relevance for our Times.
Revised edition, New Delhi: Gandhi Peace Foundation, and Bombay:
Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, pp. 21-66; 137-157. Reprinted in 1971 edition
published by World Without War Council (Berkeley).
1967 "Social Power and Political Freedom," in K.P. Misra and
Rajendra Avasthi, eds., Politics of Persuasion: Essays Written in
Memory of Dr. G.N. Dhawan. Bombay: Manaktalas, pp. 58-86.
Danish "Krigens politiske modstykke -- Civilt forsvar," in
Hagbard Jonassen, ed., Aldrig mere krig [Never more war].
Copenhagen: Borgen Forlag, pp. 89-147. (Translation of "The
Political Equivalent of War -- Civilian Defense.")
Danish "Afskraekkelse og frigörelse ved civilt forsvar," in
Adam Roberts, Jerome Frank Arne Nćss, Gene Sharp, Modstand - uden
vold. Copenhagen: Borgen Forlag, pp. 62-82. (Translation of
"Deterrence and Liberation by Civilian Defence.")
1964 "Deterrence and Liberation by Civilian Defence," and
three appendices in Adam Roberts, Jerome Frank, Arne Nćss, and Gene
Sharp, Civilian Defence. London: Peace News, pp. 44-70.
1964 "Gandhi's Political Significance Today,"in G.
Ramachandran and T.K. Mahadevan, eds., Gandhi: His Relevance for
our Times. Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, pp. 44-66.
1963 "Facing Totalitarianism Without War," in Ted Dunn, ed.,
Alternatives to War and Violence. London: James Clarke, pp.
1963 "The Need of a Substitute for War," in Margaret
Penrose, ed., Pathogenesis of War. London: H.K. Lewis, pp.
1963 "Tyranny Could Not Quell Them," in Mulford Q. Sibley,
ed., The Quiet Battle: Writings on the Theory and Practice of
Nonviolent Resistance. Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Books,
Doubleday & Co, pp. 170-186. (Excerpted from pamphlet edition,
London: Peace News, 1957.)
"Nonviolent Action and the Media" in Donald Johnston (ed.), The
Encyclopedia of International Media and Communication, San Diego:
"Nonviolent Action" in Lester Kurtz (ed.),The
Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace, and Conflict, Vol. 2, San Diego:
Academic Press, pp. 567-574.
1997 "Civilian-based Defense," "Coups d'état,"
and "Transarmament" in Roger Powers and William Vogele
(eds.), Protest, Power, and Change: An Encyclopedia of Nonviolent
Action from ACT-UP to Women's Suffrage, New York: Garland
Publishers, pp. 101-104, 131-133, 534-535, respectively.
1995 "Civil Disobedience" in Collier's Encyclopedia, New
York: P.F. Collier.
1993 "Civil Disobedience" and "Nonviolent Action,"
entries in Joel Krieger, et al, eds., The Oxford Companion
to the Politics of the World. New York and London: Oxford
University Press, pp. 139-140 and 647-650, respectively. (New edition
1986 "Civilian-Based Defense," in World Encyclopedia of
Peace, Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Articles (in English and translations)
1996 "The Power Potential of Nonviolent Struggle" with
Bruce Jenkins in Journal of Peace and
Gandhian Studies, New Delhi, Gandhi Media Centre. (Originally
appeared in Nonviolence and Tolerance in Changing Eastern and
Central Europe. Vilnius, LOGOS, 1995. See chapters above.)
1996 "Beyond Just War and Pacifism: Nonviolent Struggle towards
Justice, Freedom and Peace," in the World Council of Churches' Ecumenical
Review (Geneva), Vol. 48, No. 2, April, pp. 233-250.
1996 French(Haitian) L'Opposition a un Coup D'État," [Against
the coup d'état]. Haiti en Marche, (Miami/Port-au-Prince)
Mecredi, 28 August 1996 (Vol. X No. 29), p. 1.
Italian "La Via Della Non-Violenza" (Italian translation of
"Nonviolent Struggle: A Means Towards Justice, Freedom and
Peace", presented in Rome, Union of Superiors' General, Catholic
Church, Public Education Day, January 19, 1994) Il Regno
(Bologna), July 15, 1994, p. 435-445.
1994 "To Stop Dictators, Present and Future." The
International Herald Tribune (Paris), May 28-29, 1994, p. 6.
English "From Dictatorship to Democracy" [Serialized in ten
chapters in the English language section of this Burmese language
newspaper, February - November, 1994] - Bangkok: Khit Pyaing (New
1993 Thai "Buddhist Nonviolence and Strategic Nonviolent
Struggle" has been translated and published in Sekiya-Dhramma journal
of the Thai Inter-religious Commission for Development,
1992 "An Anti-Coup Defense: Prerequisite for a Lasting
Democracy," (Lecture in the Faculty of Political Science at
Thammasat University, Bangkok, Thailand, 5 November 1992), in Civilian-Based
Defense, Vol. 8, No. 2, December 1992, pp. 2-5. Reprinted in Nonviolence
Today, (West End, Australia), No. 31, March/April 1993, pp. 12-15.
1992 "Promoting Civilian-Based Defense: Lessons from the History
of Development of the Policy," in Civilian-Based Defense: News
and Opinion, Vol. 7, No. 6, August 1992, pp. 11-18. Reprinted in Nonviolence
Today, (West End, Australia), No. 30, January/February 1993, pp.
Spanish "En Contra de un Golpe de Estado" [Against the coup
d'état]. Economia Hoy (Caracas), 3 parts, December 22,
December 23, and December 24, 1992, pp. 18-23.
Spanish "En Contra de un Golpe de Estado" [Against the coup
d'état]. Diario El Mundo (San Salvador), 11 parts, December
1992 "The Relevance of Civilian-based Defense for the
1990s," in Civilian-Based Defense: News and Opinion, Vol.
8, No. 1, October 1992, pp. 2-6.
Spanish "Defensa civilista contra la usurpacion del poder
legal" [Civilian defense against the usurpation of legal power],
in La Prensa (Panama City), 2 parts, March 22 and March 23,
1992, p. 2a.
Russian "Nyenasilstvyenaya Barga: Luchshe Resheniya Ostrikh
Politicheskikh i Eticheskikh Konflictoff?" [Nonviolent struggle:
A better means of resolving acute political and ethical conflicts?],
in Filosofskie Nauki [Philosophical sciences] (Moscow), Vol.
11, (Nov. 1990), pp. 78-83. Reprinted as a chapter in Eticheskaya
Misl: Nauchna - Publitsisticheskiye chteniya 1991 [Ethical
thought: Scientific journal articles 1991]. Moscow: Academy of
Lithuanian "Pilietinis Pasipriesinimas," in Lietuvos
Aidas, March 26-28, 1991. [Three part edited translation of the
conference paper "A Civilian-Based Resistance Component: A
Contribution to Both Deterrence and Defense," prepared for the
Swedish Ministry of Defense]
Hebrew "Al Haoptziott Hapolitiott Hamodot Bifney Israel
Lehittmodedutt im Halntifada Vetozoteihen Haefshariott,"
[Considering policy options and consequences for Israel facing the
Intifada] in Medina, Memshal Veyehasim Bein-Leumiyim [State,
Government, and International Relations], (Jerusalem), No. 32, (Spring
1990), pp. 71-79.
"People Power Takes Center Stage," co-authored with Bruce
Jenkins, in United States Institute of Peace Journal, Vol. 3,
No. 1, March 1990, pp. 7-9.
"Nonviolence: The Path the Intifada Should Follow,"
co-authored with Bruce Jenkins, in The Return, Vol. 2, No. 5,
January 1990, pp. 32-35.
Swedish "Israel Fruktar det Fredliga Motstĺndet" [Israel
fears the peaceful resistance], in Ordfront Magasin
(Stockholm), No. 4, April 1990, pp. 55-59.
"Nonviolent Struggle in China: An Eyewitness Account,"
co-authored with Bruce Jenkins, in Nonviolent Sanctions: News from
the Albert Einstein Institution, Vol. 1, No. 2, Fall 1989.
Reprinted in Social Alternatives, Vol. 8, No. 4, January 1990,
pp. 43-47; in Nonviolence Today (Australia), No. 13,
February/March 1990, pp. 14-18; in Dutch as "Geweldloze Stridje
in China: Een Oogetuige Verslag," in Geweldloos Aktief,
No. 4, December 1989; in German as "Organisation und Leitung des
Hungerstreiks der Studenten in Peking--Mai/Juni 1989," in gewaltfreie
aktion, Vol. 22, No. 85/86, 3rd & 4th Quarter 1990, pp. 62-69.
French "L'action non-violente, meilleure stratégie pour les
Palestiniens," in Alternatives Non Violentes, No. 70,
March 1989, pp. 3-11. (Translation of the pamphlet "Nonviolent
Struggle: An Efficient Technique of Political Action -- An Interview
with Gene Sharp." By Afif Safieh.)
1989 "The Intifadah and Nonviolent Struggle," in Journal
of Palestine Studies, Vol. 19, No. 1, Issue 73, Autumn 1989, pp.
1987 "Nonviolent Struggle (Interview by Afif Safieh)," in Journal
of Palestine Studies, Vol. 17, No. 1, Issue 65, Autumn, 1987, pp.
1987 "Deterrence and Defence by Nonviolent Sanctions" in Social
Alternatives (Australia), Vol. 6, No. 2, April 1987, pp. 9-18.
(Publication of paper presented at the Alternative Defence Strategies
for Australia Conference, Brisbane, Queensland, July 7-8, 1984.)
1985 "Alternative Defense -- interview with Gene Sharp," in The
Tarrytown Letter: A Forum for New Ideas, (Tarrytown, NY), No. 45,
January 1985, pp. 3-10.
1984 "Disregarded History: The Power of Nonviolent Action"
in Duane Sweeney, editor, The Peace Catalog, Seattle: Press for
Peace, 1984, pp. 231-241. Reprinted from Fellowship, Vol. 42, No. 3,
March 1976, pp. 3-11.
1984 "Nonviolence," in The Peace Pastoral: Renewing
Perspectives, Reordering Priorities, (Proceedings of the National
Committee Meeting for the Campaign for Human Development, United
States Catholic Conference, October 28-30, 1983). Washington, DC:
Campaign for Human Development, pp. 30-37.
1983 "Investigating New Options in Conflict and Defense," in
Teachers College Record, Vol. 84, No. 1, Fall 1982. Reprinted
in Social Alternatives (Australia), Vol. 3, No. 2, March 1983.
Japanese "Senso no haizetsu o jitsugen kano na mokuhyo to
surutame-ni" [Toward the objective of making the abolition of war
a realizable possibility], in Gunji Minron [People's military
forum], No. 28, 1982, pp. 101-116. (Translation of "Making the
Abolition of War a Realistic Goal.")
1982 "Making The Abolition of War a Realistic Goal,"
reprinted in Peace Research Reviews, Vol. 9, No. 1, March 1982,
1982 "Effective Courses on Nonviolent Alternatives," in Focus,
Vol. 8, No. 2, Winter 1982, pp. 102-104.
1981 "Civilian-based Defense as a Peace Strategy," in Peace
and Change, Vol. 7, No. 4, Fall 1981, pp. 53-58.
German "Gewaltfreie Aktion: Technik im politischen Kampf"
[Nonviolent action: technique in political struggle], in graswurzel
revolution, Nos. 51 and 52, December 1980-January 1981 and
February-March 1981, pp. 20-22 of each issue.
French "A la recherche d'une solution au probleme de la
guerre," in alternatives nonviolentes, No. 39, December
1980, pp. 3-16. (Translation of "Seeking a Solution to the
Problem of War" from Social Power and Political Freedom.)
Dutch "Sociale Verdediging: Optie voor West Europa,"
[Civilian-based defense: option for Western Europe], in Jason-magazine,
Vol. 3, No. 5, December 1978, pp. 14-21.
1970 "Gandhi's Evaluation of Indian Nonviolent Action," in Political
Science Review (Rajasthan), Vol. 9, Nos. 1 and 2, January and June
1970, pp. 18-51.
1970 "National Defense Without Armaments," in Schism,
Vol. 1, No. 4, Fall 1970, pp. 34-42.
1970 "The Origins of Gandhi's Nonviolent Militancy. A
review-essay on Erik Erikson's Gandhi's Truth"), in Harvard
Political Review, Vol. 2, No. 1, May 1970, pp. 13-14 and 34-39.
1969 "Nonviolence: Moral Principle or Political Technique?"
in Indian Political Science Review (Delhi), Vol 4, No. 1,
October 1969, pp. 17-36.
1967 "The Need of a Functional Substitute for War," in International
Relations (London), Vol. 3, No. 3, April 1967, pp. 187-207.
1964 "Ethics and Responsibility in Politics: A critique of the
present adequacy of Max Weber's classification of ethical
systems," in Inquiry (Oslo), Vol. 7, No. 3, Autumn 1964,
1963 "Civil Disobedience in a Democracy: Constitutional Issues in
the Committee of 100 'Secrets Trial'," in Peace News
(London), Supplement, February 22, 1963.
1961 "Review of Leo Kuper's Passive Resistance in South Africa,"
in Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 5, No. 4, December
1961, pp. 395-402.
1959 "The Meanings of Nonviolence: A Typology," in Journal
of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 3, No. 1, March 1959, pp. 41-66.
1959 "Research Project on 'Totalitarianism and Nonviolent
Resistance,'" in Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 3,
No. 2, June 1959, pp. 153-161.
1959 "Review of Joan V. Bondurant's Conquest of Violence: The
Gandhian Philosophy of Conflict," in Journal of Conflict
Resolution, Vol. 3, No. 4, December 1959, pp. 401-410.
Introductions and Forewords
1994 Foreword in Peter Ackerman and Christopher Kruegler, Strategic
Nonviolent Conflict: The Dynamics of People Power in the Twentieth
Century. Westport: Praeger Publishers, p. ix-xiii.
1990 "Bart de Ligt (1883-1938): An Appreciation and Assessment of
his The Conquest of Violence: An Essay on War and Revolution,"
in Peter van den Dungen, Hermann Noordegraaf and Wim Robben,
"Bart de Ligt (1883-1938): Peace Activist and Peace
Researcher" (pamphlet). Boxtel: Bart de Ligt Fonds and Zwolle:
Stichting Voorlichting Aktieve Gewelloosheid, pp. 4-9.
Dutch "Bart de Ligt (1883-1938): Een waardering en beoordeling
van zijn The Conquest of Violence: An Essay on War and Revolution,"
in Gernot Jochheim, "Bart de Ligt: De overwinning op het geweld"
(pamphlet). Boxtel: Bart de Ligt Fonds, and Zwolle: Stichting
Voorlichting Aktieve Gewelloosheid, pp. 5-11.
1986 "A Brave Example to the World," in Monina Allarey
Mercado, ed., People Power -- An Eyewitness History: The Philippine
Revolution of 1986. Manila: James B. Reuter, S.J. Foundation, p.
7. (Reprint of Los Angeles Times op-ed article of April 4,
1986, "Philippines Taught Us Lessons of Nonviolence.")
1972 To Krishnalal Shridharani's War Without Violence: A Study of
Gandhi's Method and its Accomplishments. Garland Library of War
and Peace edition, New York: Garland Publishing Co, pp. 5-10.
1963 To "Thoreau: On the Duty of Civil Disobedience"
(pamphlet). London: Peace News, pp. 1-4.
Films and videotapes
1989 "People Power," a film by Ilan Ziv, featuring
Gene Sharp, shown in Britain on Channel Four in July 1989.
1989 "People Power" a related, but more autobiographical,
film by Ilan Ziv included comments by Gene Sharp, shown in the U.S. on
the "Point of View" series of National Public Television in
1986 Featured Consultant, Alternatives to Violence, a five-part
series, with a Learner's Guide, funded by the Fund for the Improvement
of Postsecondary Education, U.S. Dept. of Education, through the
University City Science Center, Philadelphia. [Inquiries to: W.T.L.
Productions, Box 351 (S), Primos, Pa. 19018. Available on VHS and BETA
cassettes (U.S.) plus NTSC and PAL systems (international).]
1986 Panelist, ABC News Nightline, show #1279, April 17, 1986,
"Libya Attack: Debating the Consequences." (Transcript:
Journal Graphics, 2 John Street, New York, N.Y. 10038. Tape: ABC-TV
Nightline, attn. Pat Vance, Wide World of Learning, 825 Seventh
Avenue, N.Y. 10019.)
1994 "Interview with Gene Sharp" with Fr. Donal
O'Mahoney featured on two Vatican radio short-wave broadcasts, 27
January and 3 February.
1986 "Conversations with The Christian Science Monitor,"
September 5, 1986 interview with Gene Sharp.
1985 "Making Europe Unconquerable", an address before the
Cambridge Forum, January 23,
1985. (Inquiries: Cambridge Forum, 3 Church Street, Cambridge, Mass.
1982 "A Case for Nonviolent Defense," an address before the
Ninth Pax Christi (USA) National Aassembly, Rochester, Minn., October
9, 1982. (Inquiries to: Media Department, Catholic Education Center,
328 West Sixth Street, St. Paul, Minn. 55102.)
1983 "A Modern Alternative to War?", interview June 1983,
tape #83-24. "More on Civilian-Based Defense," interview
October 1984, tape #84-40. Common Ground Cassettes. (Inquiries:
The Stanley Foundation, 420 East Third Street, Muscatine, Iowa 52761.)
Books recorded for the blind
1986 Making Europe Unconquerable, Readings for the
Blind, Inc., 29451 Greenfield Road, Southfield, Mich. 48076. (Three
cassettes, available on 3-3/4 ips 4-track cassettes.)
1982 Social Power and Political Freedom, Recording for the
Blind, 20 Roszel Road, Princeton, N.J. 08540. (Shelf no. BL189 (five
tapes). Available on 15/16 ips 4-track cassettes.
1979 The Politics of Nonviolent Action, Part I, Power and
Struggle, recording no. 4591-79C (four cassettes), Volunteer
Services for the Visually Handicapped, Milwaukee Public Library (814
West Wisconsin Avenue, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53233).
1977 The Politics of Nonviolent Action, Part I, Power and
Struggle, shelf no. AL 652 (two tapes). Part II, The Methods of
Nonviolent Action, shelf no. AM 815 (five tapes). Part III, The
Dynamics of Nonviolent Action, shelf no. AP 252 (five tapes).
(Available either on 1 7/8 ips 4-track open reel tapes or 15/16 ips
4-track cassettes. Recording for the Blind, Inc. 215 East 58th Street,
New York, New York. 10022.)
The Albert Einstein Institution
427 Newbury Street
Boston, MA 02115-1810
A nonprofit organization advancing the study and use of strategic
nonviolent action in conflicts throughout the world.